Construction of professional tennis court according to ITF
Tennis Courts Construction in Bali and Indonesia
Choosing the surface
One of he most important decisions in planning a tennis facility is choosing a surface. There are numerous factors to consider. When installing an outdoor court, the geographic location will play a major role. These factors can limit the tennis season and affect the construction, maintenance and useful life of courts. In sunny areas, sun will be the enemy of the court, bleaching out the color of a hard court, and drying a clay or fast dry court. Warmer, more humid areas such as seaside and other areas, will offer a year round tennis season, but also may bring about algae or mildew problems.
Intended use and player preferences should be a major consideration. What type of players will use the court and how often will they be playing? What type of tennis game do they prefer? How willing are players to provide court maintenance such as brooming or rolling? How careful are players about the surface? Are players looking for a court year round? A properly designed tennis court will fit the players’ needs, interests and style of play.
Surface choice may be affected by short and long term costs. The cost of construction of a given type of court will depend on site conditions, availability of materials, budget and similar factors. Long term costs are influenced by the amount of maintenance required and the expected useful life of a surface.
The amount and frequency of repair will vary from surface to surface as well. Surface cracking and peeling in all weather courts, uneven texture resulting from packed fill in filled turf systems, frost damage to clay and annual resurfacing of fast dry courts, all are examples of common maintenance requirements for various types of tennis courts. Some can be easily and inexpensively repaired, while others will require more expensive and time consuming maintenance or repair procedures.
The availability of certain materials and equipment may be limited, depending upon the location of the court. Finally, site conditions, such as subbase soils and drainage may affect the suitability of a specific surface.
Classification of the tennis courts surfaces:
There are a number of ways to classify tennis courts.
Tennis players commonly classify tennis courts as “soft courts” and “hard courts”. Soft courts include clay, fast dry, grass and in filled synthetic turf. They are quite popular with players because they are easy on players’ feet, backs and legs and they generally provide cool, glare free surfaces. Fast dry, clay and grass courts are less expensive to construct than hard courts in most parts of the country, but they require regular care and, for clay and fast dry courts, annual repair and/or resurfacing. Also, fast dry courts may require daily maintenance and watering. Sometimes this is accomplished by means of a subsurface irrigation system incorporated in the construction. Soft courts are easily damaged, but also easily repaired. In colder climates, these courts often are closed for the season when the ground freezes.
Hard courts include asphalt and concrete courts surfaced with acrylic coatings or covered with roll or sheet goods or modular surfaces. They generally require less maintenance and hold up somewhat better to the abuse and misuse which seem inevitable when courts are unattended. Properly installed, hard courts are generally considered to be durable and to require relatively low maintenance. Hard courts may offer a longer playing season in cold climates. Even in the midst of winter, they my be available for play on any warm day and play resumes earlier in spring and continues later in fall than on soft courts.
When constructed and maintained properly, a grass court can provide an extremely fast game with a minimum amount of impact to the joints. A tennis ball hit onto a grass court has a low, fast bounce, although the speed of the court can be adjusted somewhat by varying the cutting height of the grass. The court does not retain heat as much as other surfaces and its surface is free of glare.
Because climate and soil conditions have a great deal to do with the success of the court, the grass surface is not practical for all areas. Also, daily care and regular maintenance are necessary, and include such activities such as watering, top dressing, fertilizing, mowing, and reseeding or sodding the worn parts of the court.
INFILLED SYNTHETIC TURF
Since many institutions lack the staffing, the knowledge and/or the maintenance equipment to properly care for a natural grass court, in filled turf was developed to provide some of the look and playing characteristics of natural grass with less maintenance. Additionally, infilled turf courts provide an advantage over fast dry, clay and natural grass in that they do not require water in the maintenance routine.
Often, in filled turf systems are laid over existing asphalt or concrete pavements, providing one means of reconstructing badly weathered or cracked courts.
SYNTHETIC CLAY COURTS
A type of court frequently used in Europe and becoming more common in the US is the synthetic clay or fast dry court. Traditional clay and fast dry courts are built with an aggregate base and require irrigation to maintain compaction and/or to provide other performance characteristics.
Synthetic clay courts are installed over a pavement; the surfacing material may be either an in filled synthetic turf or a loose-laid aggregate. In the in filled surfaces, a short, dense pile is used as a platform to hold an infill consisting of colored sand or aggregate to create a sliding surface. In the loose-laid court, a layer of fast dry, brick dust, crushed limestone or other material tops the pavement to create the sliding surface.
These courts require little or no regular irrigation, need far less maintenance than a traditional clay or fast dry court, and are playable in all weather.
According to one industry poll, more than 70% of the tennis courts in the United States are hard courts- asphalt or concrete pavements, generally covered with an acrylic colored surface coating system. The coating system protects the court from the elements, enhances its appearance, and determines the playing characteristics of the court. Hard courts are low maintenance, which makes them popular for institutional applications. In addition, hard courts are playable whenever there is no snow or ice on the ground, and they drain and dry quickly after rain, earning them the nickname “all weather” courts.
Hard courts: asphalt and concrete, in general, are low maintenance and do not require daily care. For this reason, they are an ideal choice where an owner does not plan to supervise play, has limited time to care for the court, and/or where players will be keeping courts in use for all or most of the year in colder climates.
Properly installed concrete courts are extremely durable with low maintenance costs after initial construction, though initial cost may be somewhat higher than that of asphalt courts. If problems occur, concrete courts are more difficult to repair than asphalt courts.
Sometimes a resilient layer of cushioning material is applied over asphalt or concrete prior to color coating. Alternatively, some coating materials contain rubber and produce a cushioned effect. While the cushioned surface has some give, such courts are called “cushioned” or “cushioned acrylics” to separate them from clay and fast dry courts which are called “soft” courts.
Cushioned courts usually have excellent playing characteristics including good traction and a true, uniform, slow to medium-fast bounce. They also provide an all weather surface for year round play and relatively low maintenance. These attributes make them popular with players, but, depending on the amount on the amount of cushioning provided, such courts are considerable more expensive than traditional hard courts.
MODULAR SURFACING SYSTEMS
Modular tennis courts are those whose surfaces are made up of interlocking tiles approximately 1’ (305mm) square and usually composed of polypropylene and rubber. These systems are put into place over a base of asphalt or concrete.
Textile materials used a tennis surfaces resemble indoor/outdoor carpeting, but are normally manufactured to more exacting specifications. Textile surfaces are fast and provide a true bounce as well as excellent acoustical absorption. Their sound absorption is a significant benefit when using them indoors. These surfaces require minimal maintenance beyond an occasional vacuuming to remove ball fuzz. A textile surface can be installed permanently by adhering it to the substrate or it may be used as a temporary or portable surface. A down side of a textile surface is that its playing characteristics are determined at manufacture and cannot be altered. Also, only minor repairs are possible. When a court shows wear, it cannot be resurfaced but must be removed and replaced.
Tennis courts pitch sizes
The usual court size is 23.78 m long, and its width is 8.23 m for singles matches and 10.98 m for doubles matches. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of 18.3 m wide and 36.7 m long. A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends. The net is 1.07 m high at the posts, and 920 mm high in the center.